- Note: this page deals with the fascinating and under-reported December, 2012 massacre in Maan, Hama Province. For the larger and more famous 2014 massacre there, see Maan Massacre, 2014. You should look at both pages.
The Maan Massacre reportedly occurred on December 25, 2012 (disputed - see #Date Controversy below), in the Alawite-majority village of Maan. Opposition sources claim 23 civilians of a few families, including children and women - all from the town's Sunni minority - were killed by pro-government, Alawite, "Shabiha." It's said the victims were beheaded and burned. Ma'an was reportedly under the occupation of Sunni Jihadist rebels (Ahrar al-Sham and Jabhat al-Nusra) from December 24th to the 26th. Rebels offer no explanation for the gaps that leaves in a record they seem to think no one understands (see below, #The Opposition Record).
The claim that the victims were Sunnis allows the rebel brigades to avoid the bad impression created after the last alleged Shabiha massacre following a rebel conquest of an Alawite town, at Aqrab 2-3 weeks earlier. There, the 150 or so alleged victims were acknowledged as Alawites, and the rebel cover story quickly fell apart. Here, hardly anyone outside Syria really even noticed. The Sunni-victims claim is of course highly questionable, but it also might be true and yet still leave the rebels to blame (see here).
The Opposition Record
The beauty of this case for those questioning opposition claims like A Closer Look On Syria (ACLOS) does, is how the picture emerges from three opposition sources alone, with no input from SANA, RT, or anyone of the sort. Only the most common sense reading between the lines is required from there.
1: First, the generally reliable, well-informed, and pro-opposition Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported on December 24 about the Islamist takeover of Maan, which the brigades had announced plans for three days earlier. There was concern over the Alawite citizens, but no news until word that the army was again in control on the 26th. This narrative, actually, is worked into the :Location, Context, Conquest" section below, hasn't been contradicted by anything, and sets that timeline aspect. Three days rebels had access, with fighting for it happening on two of those days. There seems to be no public SOHR updates after that to say what happened inside Maan in those days or after.
2: A week later, on January 1, German paper Der Spiegel ran an article (in German only, Google translated with attempted grammar fixes) with a rebel account of a recent massacre, in Maan:
- Opponents of the regime reported on Tuesday that members of the Shabiha militia in the village of Maan, in Hama province, have beheaded 23 people. The fighters are on the side of President Bashar al-Assad.
- According to the reports, those killed included the few Sunni families who lived in the village. Also seven children were reportedly killed. The corpses were set on fire, so that some of them could not be identified. It's difficult to independently verify opposition reports, because the Syrian government has imposed a media blockade.
- The massacre is said to have begun after rebels attacked on Monday government roadblocks and troops in the region. These then called the militia fighters. 
So the alleged massacre came after rebel attacks on checkpoints, which could explain why the Shabiha would be called in to massacre Sunni families in retaliation. This report suggests the massacre was just then, on December 31 or even January 1, but this is either one faint attempt at that, or a simple illusion (see #Date Controversy below).
3: The time question is seemingly best settled by a third opposition activist source that also provides more name details. The Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria (VDC) database generates this list of 25 "field execution" martyrs from Hama, Dec. 25. Of those, many unidentified, 6 are apparently unrelated and 19 are from Ma'an (13 labeled, 6 inferred), with one victim listed twice, for an actual total of 18 (for details see below. They include the note "Twenty Three field execution in Ma'an by the regime army forces and their bodies were burned. they were documented in 01-01-2013." They support the number 23, implying a further 4 victims not verified and listed here. The VDC says it only got this information on January 1, the same as Der Spiegel's report. No one was told until then. But the VDC is clear the info was old - as the very list we're looking at says, these people all have Date of death 2012-12-25. The dastardly Shabiha killed the Alawites on Christmas Day - right in the middle of that worrisome rebel occupation. 
The collective picture is quite troubling. There's no good reason why Shabiha would strike right then, and succeed so well with the rebels for once there to protect the Sunnis. As with the Houla Massacre, it seems the regime Alawite Sunni-killers decide to act at just the same time rebels are best positioned to just do it for them, if they had any other half-decent reason to kill those people. That it seemingly took the opposition a week to document and report the incident, even though they were in Ma'an at the time and should have at least heard about it, only adds to the suspicious nature of this incident - they seem to have avoided any mention until a period of government control had also elapsed. And again, this is all from opposition sources only trying to help blame the Syrian government. It wasn't done very well here, considering.
Location, Context, Conquest
Maan (Arabic: معان) is located here on Google maps, and on Wikimapia, 22 km north of Hama. It seems to be a very small town of only a few thousand people, set amid expansive fields. It's about three miles east of Morek (which straddles the main north-south highway connecting Damascus and Aleppo). Maan is also about 12 miles northeast of Halfaya, conquered by rebels around Dec. 20th, and the reginal power station there knocked out of commission on the 26th.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported on the 21st: "Opposition sources said rebels had won some territory in the strategic southern town of Morek and were surrounding the Alawite town of al-Tleisia. They were also planning to take the town of Maan, arguing that the army was present there and in al-Tleisia and was hindering their advance on nearby Morek 
(Wikipaia, Tulaysiyah) Three days later, it seems, they moved on Ma'an; the SOHR would report that "Jihadists" took "large parts" of the small town in fighting that killed 20 soldiers (or "Shabiha") and 11 rebel fighters.  They apparently held the town for two days; Maan was reportedly re-taken by government forces on the 26th, as part of their announced and successful offensive in the region. ABC, Australia, Dec. 27: Elsewhere, the army took control of three Alawite villages in the central province of Hama, among them Maan, large swathes of which were overrun by jihadists two days earlier, the watchdog said.
It was six days later the massacre was reported. It's not certain at the moment whether there was or was not a second rebel assault in those days. The Syrian Center for Documentation and its expansive (if disinfo-clogged) martyrs database gives some valuable clues: apparently the massacre came during the brief rebel conquest, on Christmas day, December 25. There are two fatalities listed fro Ma'an on Dec. 24: Unidentified 1 (w/photo): died of shooting, "His body was found murdered and thrown in the village." Civilian clothing, but fighting age and moderately bearded. All the same for Unidentified 2 No rebel fighters are listed. Then, a number of civilians from a few families are listed as field executed on December 25 (see below).
As Naharnet Newsdesk passed on:
- Alongside other radical Islamist groups, al-Nusra Front seized parts of the village of Maan, said the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, adding at least 11 rebel fighters and 20 regime troops were killed. 
Al-Nusrah front, aka Jabhat Al-Nusra, active in Syria for over a year, had just been listed by the United States as a terrorist group, a direct offshoot of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. Their black flag was seen over the alleged bakery in nearby Halfaya that was shelled in the alleged Halfaya Bakery Bombing on Dec. 23. That they would also be operating around Maan in those days is not surprising.
Another among the "other radical Islamist groups" involved is suggested by a Youtube video posted December 25 that might be from the fight for Maan. It shows shooting across a field from behind stone walls, and many, many cries of Allahu Akbar.  Title/description Google-trans: "Free Sham address Hbihh (Shabiha) village gloss upper Hama, Part of a battle Ahrar Brigades Sham and Martyrs Brigades and the Al-Hamza against Hbihh (Shabiha) village upper meanings in the northern Hama 24 \ 12 \ 2012 have been killed some Shabiha led to Ostchhad some Mujahideen may God have mercy on them." The town is apparently specified as Ma'an, which translates as either glitter or gloss.
This might refer to Ahrar Al-Sham, the "Free Men of Greater Syria." According to the Wikipedia page, they are a network of Salafist fighters centered mostly in Idilb, but also Aleppo and Hama provinces. Interestingly, just two days before the Maan attack, on December 22, Ahrar joined with 11 other groups (but not apparently Al-Nusrah, officially) in the new "Syrian Islamic Front," with Ahrar Al-Sham member Abu 'Abd Al-Rahman Al-Suri appointed spokesman. 
Reports on the Massacre
The Local Coordination Committees mention the event. Syria Today 1-1-2013 (Jan. 2)
- By the end of Tuesday, the LCC was able to document 136 martyrs, including 6 women and 16 children. 42 martyrs were reported in Damascus and its suburbs; 44 in Hama, including 23 martyrs from the village of Maan and 16 from Hasraya; 15 martyrs were reported in Deir Ezzor, including 9 unidentified martyrs in the village of Hatla; 12 martyrs in Homs, including an entire family from Deir Baalba; 8 in Daraa; 9 in Aleppo; 4 in Idlib; 1 in Lattakia; and 1 in Raqqa. That makes it seem they were massacre on or just before the 1st of January. But below is the section explaining it:
- Hama: Maa’an: 23 people were field-executed by regime forces in the village. It should be noted that they were executed a week ago and their bodies were found today. The martyrs are: Khaled Al-Khalaf Fawzy Al-Arer, Mohannad Al-Toqany and his son Khaled Al-Satof, Ali Al-Rady and his son, Turkia Ahmad Al-Mohammad and her son, Abdullah Khodair Al-Mohammad and his brother Ahmad, 5 people from Al-Awad family, and 7 unidentified children. It should be noted that there are bodies still under the rubble of burned homes 
It's not specified by whom they were just then found.
SANA and loyalist sources apparently said little to nothing about the 2012 Maan massacre at the time or afterwards. But after the much higher-profile 2014 massacre, an account was published shedding light on both incidents. The site SyriaNews.cc, in an apparent original interview published Feb. 14, 2014, passed on the story of "Iyad," presumably a pseudonym. He was injured in the recent rebel takeover but made it out - in a wheelchair now. It's not possible to verify his account at the moment, but it has compelling and maybe useful details. Recalling the earlier incident that he says claimed at least four family members:
- “The first time the Takfiris attacked was on 24/12/2012. There was a wedding and they took the chance to enter some vacant homes. They attacked three days later killing tens of civilians amid media silence.”
- Firas had lost his mother, four of his siblings and his cousin. They were slaughtered. He couldn’t receive the bodies for burial until a week later, by then the bodies were starting to decompose.
- Implied kiiling date: Dec. 27. This conflicts with both Dec. 25 and Jan. 1. The bodies decaying already a week later - about the 2nd - argues against it being any later than he says, anyway. Dec. 25-27 seems the better illustrated range.
- Firas describes the first massacre in anger, as if it happened right in front of him. “My mother and sisters had hidden in the basement of our home, the terrorists entered. They cut the hands of my cousin and slaughtered my sisters and mother.”
- Firas’ anger turns to sadness, and he bows his head trying to hide his tears trying to regain his composure. “A week later we received the bodies, and we buried them in the town of Salhab. My mother was a simple old woman, her deepest joy was to bake for the whole village at dawn.” 
There don't seem to be any clearly-labeled Arabic-language videos of the actual events in Maan (a disturbing parallel with Aqrab). There are however a fewArabic news reports where activists explain the story to talking heads. We can't get much use from these, but for those who can and for general reference:
- Al Jazeera Arabic: Execution of 23 civilians slaughtered with knives and burned to death at the hands of Assad forces
- Al Haffa News: Arabic: Musab al-Hammadi talking about meanings in Hama massacre 01/01/2013
- Al Arabiya
- Al Arabiya
- Al Arabiya
The opposition Shaam News Network issued a report with some details and many namesof those "slaughtered and then spent burning at the hands of forces loyal to the regime in the village" (a valuable source - will be worked in above). A Google translated edit of their massacre explanation:
- The village of Ma'an ... After the battles fought by the Free Army ... Provided buses Shabiha from everywhere ... entered the village of Ma'an and committed horrible massacres against our brothers the Sunnis, who make up a small percentage of the village ... slaughtered ... and then burned all the bodies ... twenty-three martyrs and the number is rising .. In addition to a number of martyrs under the rubble of demolished houses. 
Syria Politic has an interesting take on alleged rebel killings in the initial attack of Dec. 24, a week before the reports under study. "Killing and wounding dozens in the "glitter" Hama countryside after Islamists attack "in revenge for the Halfaya"" (corrected Google translate)
- Syria Politic has learned that dozens of sons of the village of Maan, inhabited by members of the Muslim minority Alawite, had been killed and wounded after an attack by Islamist fighters, on their homes on the outskirts of the village. The village meanings belonging to the town of Soran Hama.
- Opposition websites described the attack on the Maan as "an attack on a Nusayri (Alawite, derogatory) village," (they?) said in news headlines.
- However, the civilian sources in those areas I talked (with?) spoke about killing dozens of civilians from the village. Some of them were killed (in their homes?), such as "Jacob safety"' ("يعقوب سلامة"), and said that the weapons found in the village were those held by individual villagers to defend from attacks, as happened on Monday morning. 
While it's possible there are two or even more massacre dates, the presumption is that is was all on one day people were killed. There are, however, three different days given or implied by various sources, spanning about one week. This deserves a little consideration.
- December 25: The most straightforward date, considering the rebel takeover that roughly coincided with the massacre, is the one that puts it in the middle of that occupation. The Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria, as noted above, gives the death date of December 25 for the 19 victims from Ma'an.  That's the one full day of occupation rebels enjoyed, it seems, with the first part of the day before and the last part of the next day fighting to gain and then to lose control. Especially as this is an opposition source, it's not likely they're trying to implicate the rebel brigades. However, the VDC's records are known to contain many mistakes, and can't be taken as definitive proof of anything.
- One added appeal of this date is that it's Christmas, a date significant to Christians in Syria, which Alawi are not. However, there is some historical conflation Sunni extremists haven't forgotten, where Syria's persecuted minorities - the "Nusayries" (Alawites, "enemies of God") and "Nasara" (Nazarenes, Christians) - living side-by-side, had adopted each others' traditions. The Alawi had at one time celebrated both Easter and Christmas, having embraced Christ into their cosmology in some way. The recent fad has been to revive old animosities and to consider Alawi as non-Muslims. When scanning other infidel religions you might link them to in some wicked conspiracy, the one to which Christmas is so special would probably place first. [citation(s) needed - later] So, while immediate military concerns and such might have set the timing, it can't be ruled out that Christmas seemed an extra good day on which to butcher Alawites, and so helped narrow down that decision.
- December 27: After surviving the 2014 attack on Ma'an, local man "Firas" told SyriaNews.cc about the earlier incident that claimed the lives of several family members. It started with a militant invasion of the town on December 24, and then "they attacked three days later killing tens of civilians amid media silence.”  This implies a date of December 27, although it's not clear if his information is even first-hand. "He couldn’t receive the bodies for burial until a week later," the report adds, and "by then the bodies were starting to decompose." The reason for the delay isn't clear here. A week later, strictly read, is January 3rd, but whichever day, a week after they would be decaying. Opposition sources speak of someone finding the bodies only on January 1, anytime after which the families might get them - presumably from the authorities.
- Dec. 31/Jan. 1: The version activists told to German paper Der Spiegel suggests the latest massacre date of December 31 or even January 1, in a story filed on the latter date. On Tuesday the 1st of January, they explained (translated) "The massacre is said to have begun after rebels attacked on Monday government roadblocks and troops in the region. These then called the militia fighters."  The most recent Monday is of course the day before, the 31st. But if it's only implicitly Dec. 31, then alternately it could refer to the previous Monday - December 24, the date of the rebel attack, after which the massacre happened. The decision to announce fighting and massacre only on the 1st could be from events happened as they imply or, as reported below, because no one knew about a massacre iuntil the bodies were found on the first, or perhaps, they intentionally waited so just an extra Monday could muddle the timeline. If caught or pressed on the issue, they could then say "no, we meant last Monday, you just misread it..." So this date isn't even really specified, just hinted at, perhaps not even intentionally, and most strongly here.
- Other sources, like Shaam News Network, support this impression, but even more vaguely. In a report of January 1, the "General Authority of the Syrian Revolution | Revolutionary Command Council in Hama" reported 29 new martyrs. The 23 massacre victims are there, no death dates specified. Recent is suggested but not strongly; the other additions are rebel fighters and others killed December 30, 20, 19, and 15.  Other opposition sources yet clarify that the 31st is not even the approximate time. The Local Coordinating Committees report on the 1st that "23 people were field-executed by regime forces in the village." But they add "It should be noted that they were executed a week ago and their bodies were found today."  That is, it was the previous Monday that the massacre happened after, and not by much. A week before the 1st is exactly the 25th, but the 27th is also close enough to round it up to a week since. So all we can be sure of yet is that the range excludes dates after the 27th.
As noted above, Der Spiegel reported the claim that the victims were from Sunni families in Maan.  Shaam News Network provided a partial list of names and a tally of martyrs seen or known about, with 23 entries total. Martyrs from "Gloss" (معان - Maan) / "slaughtered and then spent burning at the hands of forces loyal to the regime in the village" Arabic - (Google Translate)
- خالد الخلف - (Khaled Back)
- خلف خالد الخلف - (Behind Khaled Back)
- معند الطوقاني - (Intractable Ataiwghani)
- (name unknown -"son of a martyr intractable Ataiwghani")
- فوزي العرير - (Fawzi Aeryr)
- علي الراضي - (Ali Radi)
- (name unknown-son of Ali Radi)
- الشهيدة السيدة تركية أحمدالمحمد - (Turkish martyr Ms. Ahmdalmamed)
- (name unknown, son of Ms. Ahmdalmamed)
- عبدالله خضير المحمد - (Abdullah Khudair Mohammad)
- أحمد خضير المحمد - (Ahmed Khudair Mohammad)
- (name unknown)
- (name unknown)
- (name unknown)
- (name unknown)
- (name unknown)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr)
- (name unknown, child martyr) 
Note the sloppy recording and lack of identity knowledge. Heads of households known, kids... just dead. Syrian Center for Documentation of Violations (martyrs list: all Hama Dec. 25- it won't allow a Ma'an only search for some reason). The following appear for Ma'an with the notes "Twenty Three field execution in Ma'an by the regime army forces and their bodies were burned. they were documented in 01-01-2013" - admitted it took a week to figure out how to document them:
- Khalid al-Khalaf Fawze al-Arer adult male
- Muhanad al-Twkane adult male
- Khalid Satof Muhanad al-Twkane adult male
- Ali al-Rade adult male
- Turkieh Ahmad al-Mohammad adult female
- Abdullah Khoder al-Mohammad adult male
- Awad Family 1 (entry 51106) adult male
- Awad Family 1 (entry 51107) adult male
- Awad Family 2 adult male
- Awad Family 3 adult male
- Awad Family 4 adult male
- Awad Family 5 adult male
(above, 5 entries "name unknown". Here, at least the family name is given)
Note: five Awad family are specified, bu the VDC lists 6. #1 is clearly just listed twice. Further, six anonymous male children field executed somewhere in Hama governorate, Dec. 25, apparently the unidentified kids listed as 7 above. Added - all are male children: مجهول الهوية 1 - مجهول الهوية 2 - مجهول الهوية 3 - مجهول الهوية 4 - مجهول الهوية 5 - مجهول الهوية 6 And the seventh, also a boy, is helpfully given as Ma'an. (entries out-of-order and discontinuous here)
Total SCDV listings = 18 (one listed twice) Breakdown: 10 adult male, one adult female, seven male children ... There are missing females, one can presume.
Combining the above two sources with the victim list provided by the LCC, we can create this table for comparison of all 23 victims. The SNN entries show the Arabic name and direct transliteration.
|Victims by Source|
|Name||SNN ||VDC ||LCC 
|1 Khaled Al-Khalaf Fawzy Al-Arer||فوزي العرير - (Fawzi Aeryr)||Khalid al-Khalaf Fawze al-Arer - AM||Khaled Al-Khalaf Fawzy Al-Arer|
|2 Khaled Al-Khalaf||خالد الخلف - khald alkhlf||??||??|
|3 Khalaf Al-Khaled Al-Khalaf||خلف خالد الخلف - khlf khald alkhlf - ?||??||??|
|4 Mohannad Al-Toqany||معند الطوقاني - m'end altwqany||Muhanad al-Twkane - AM||Mohannad Al-Toqany|
|5 Khaled Al-Satof Al-Toqany||unknown, son of m'end altwqany||Khalid Satof Muhanad al-Twkane - AM||Khaled Al-Satof, son of Mohannad|
|6 Ali al-Rade||علي الراضي - Ali Radi||Ali al-Rade - AM||Ali Al-Rady|
|7 Ali al-Rade's son||name unknown - son of Ali Radi||??||Ali Al-Rady's son|
|8 Turkia Ahmad Al-Mohammad||السيدة تركية أحمدالمحمد - lady trkyh ahmdalmhmd||Turkieh Ahmad al-Mohammad - AF||Turkia Ahmad Al-Mohammad|
|9 unknown||??||??||Turkia Ahmad Al-Mohammad's Son?|
|10 Ahmed Khodr Al-Mohammad||أحمد خضير المحمد - ahmd khdyr almhmd||??||Ahmad Khodair Al-Mohammad (Abdullah, brother)|
|11 Abdullah Khodr Al-Mohammad||عبدالله خضير المحمد - 'ebdallh khdyr almhmd||Abdullah Khoder al-Mohammad - AM||Abdullah Khodair Al-Mohammad (Ahmad, brother)|
|12 Awad Family||(name unknown)||Awad Family 1 - Awad Family 1 - AM||5 people from Al-Awad family|
|13 Awad Family||(name unknown)||Awad Family 2 - AM||5 people from Al-Awad family|
|14 Awad Family||(name unknown)||Awad Family 3 - AM||5 people from Al-Awad family|
|15 Awad Family||(name unknown)||Awad Family 4 - AM||5 people from Al-Awad family|
|16 Awad Family||(name unknown)||Awad Family 5 - AM||5 people from Al-Awad family|
|17 boy 1||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 1 - CM||7 unidentified children|
|18 boy 2||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 2 - CM||7 unidentified children|
|19 boy 3||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 3||7 unidentified children|
|20 boy 4||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 4||7 unidentified children
|21 boy 5||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 5||7 unidentified children|
|22 boy 6||(name unknown, child martyr)||مجهول الهوية 6||7 unidentified children|
|23 boy 7||(name unknown, child martyr)||unidentified 7||7 unidentified children|
Firas, a young adult male, says his mother, two brothers, two sisters, and a cousin all were killed in this massacre.  If so, the massacre was apparently bigger than advertised. Even past the VDC's 18 to the full reported 23, there is exactly one female of any age listed.
The Awad family with five unnamed victims may be connected to a batch of 11 people, mostly named Awad, who were singled out for a broad-ranging spree of killings in Homs Province, April, 2013 - see Homs Massacres#Awad Family Massacre. An alleged rebel fighter died first, March 31, then on the 1st of April a man and woman south of Homs, and another batch of 8 people, including five Awad children, was also killed the 1st in a town way to the east. All ten were killed by random "warplane shelling" that killed almost no one else, records say. The massacre of 8 was in Umm Reish, 75 km southeast of Maan.
Also, the family name Mohammed is too common to say much about. But since it seems here tagged to some Alawi in the Homs area, that might reflect back on the January, 2012 Mohammad family massacre of six in Homs. It included a man, his wife, two young girls, and two boys, one an infant - they were horribly tortured and mutilated, each one.
It can only be guessed, without further information, which of these families the 7 boys belong to. And for that matter, after all this attention, we cannot be sure these provided identities are even accurate.
- Assad-Miliz soll 23 Menschen enthauptet haben Der Spiegel, January 1, 2013
- 25 field executed martyrs from Hama Province, December 25, 2012 Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria, martyrs database query
- Syrian rebels intensify fight for strategic town in Hama province Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, December 21, 2012
- Jihadists Take Large Part of Syria Alawite Village Naharnet Newsdesk, December 24, 2012
- أحرار الشام تتصدى لشبيحة قرية معان العلوية ريف حماة Youtube video, 3:35, published December 25, 2012 byشهاب الحق
- Ahrar al-Sham] Wikipedia, last edited 1 January 2013 at 11:29
- Syria Today 1-1-2013 Local Coordination Committees, Posted by Abeer, January 2, 2012
- What Happened in Maan, the Two Massacres Interview with alleged survivor/witness "Firas." Posted by Pro Syriana. Syria News, February 14, 2014
- التقرير اليومي لمحافظة حماة 1-1-2013 Shaam News Network, Hama reports January 1, 2013
- مقتل وجرح العشرات في "معان" بريف حماة بعد هجوم إسلاميين "ثأرا لحلفايا" Syria Politic, December 24, 2012