The Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) or Hashd al-Sha'abi are an Iraqi militia established in 2014 to counter ISIS. They operate under the formal command of the Iraqi army and have been established by Shi'ite Ayatollah al-Sistani, but consist of units of almost all regional religions and ethnicities. By 2017 they have an estimated 60-90 thousand fighters under weapons. The Iraqi government pays a budget for 45 thousand fighters.
- What next for PMU in Iraq's Anbar province?, Shelly Kittleson, Al Monitor, November 28, 2017
- The Militias in Iraq, From Popular Mobilization to Political Interference, Sylvain Mercadier and Araz Muhamad Arash, Syria Comment, February 10, 2018 (see also: Follow-Up and Correctives)
- The Shadow Militias of the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Units - Tom Webster, January 12, 2021
- Popular Mobilization Units: Establishment, War On ISIS, Role In Future Of Iraq, SouthFront, July 21, 2017
- Follow-Up and Correctives on Hashd al-Sha’bi Article, Sylvain Mercadier and Elijah Magnier, Syria Comment, February 15, 2018