The Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) or Hashd al-Sha'abi are an Iraqi militia established in 2014 to counter ISIS. They operate under the formal command of the Iraqi army and have been established by Shi'ite Ayatollah al-Sistani, but consist of units of almost all regional religions and ethnicities. By 2017 they have an estimated 60-90 thousand fighters under weapons.
- What next for PMU in Iraq's Anbar province?, Shelly Kittleson, Al Monitor, November 28, 2017
- Popular Mobilization Units: Establishment, War On ISIS, Role In Future Of Iraq, SouthFront, July 21, 2017