Claims of Russian hacking
- Digital Attack on German Parliament: Investigative Report on the Hack of the Left Party Infrastructure in Bundestag - Netzpolitik.org, June 19, 2015
- Russian government hackers penetrated DNC, stole opposition research on Trump - Ellen Nakashima, Washington Post, June 14, 2018
- Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee - Dmitri Alperovitch, CrowdStrike, June 15, 2016
- Findings from Analysis of DNC Intrusion Malware - Michael Buratowski, Threat Geek, June 20, 2016
- Here’s What We Know About Russia and the DNC Hack - April Glaser, Wired, July 27, 2016
- Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security - US-CERT, October 7, 2016
- The Russian Expat Leading the Fight to Protect America, Vicky Ward, Esquire, October 24, 2016
- Here’s The Evidence Russia Hacked The Democratic National Committee - Massimo Calabresi, TIME, December 13, 2016
- See also Profexer
- GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity - US-CERT, December 29, 2016
- JAR_16-20296A_GRIZZLY STEPPE-2016-1229.pdf - Report as PDF file
Burlington Electric Department
- Russian operation hacked a Vermont utility, showing risk to U.S. electrical grid security, officials say - Juliet Eilperin, Washington Post, December 30, 2016
- A code associated with the Russian hacking operation dubbed Grizzly Steppe by the Obama administration has been detected within the system of a Vermont utility, according to U.S. officials.
- While the Russians did not actively use the code to disrupt operations, according to officials who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a security matter, the discovery underscores the vulnerabilities of the nation’s electrical grid. And it raises fears in the U.S. government that Russian government hackers are actively trying to penetrate the grid to carry out potential attacks.
- Vermont Electricity Department Finds Malware Linked to Russian Hackers - Phil Helsel, NBC News, December 31, 2016
- A Vermont electricity provider said it found malware linked to an alleged Russian campaign to hack political entities in a laptop, after U.S. utilities were warned about the "Grizzly Steppe" affiliated code by the federal government.
- Russia penetrated Vermont utility company computer - USA Today, December 31, 2016
- BURLINGTON, Vt. — Malicious software believed tied to a Russian hacking group associated with attempts to influence the U.S. presidential election was found Friday within a computer that belongs to Burlington Electric, one of Vermont’s electrical utilities.
- How The Washington Post's Defense Of Its Russian Hacking Story Unraveled Through Web Archiving - Kalev Leetaru, Forbes, January 2, 2016
- How the Internet Archive’s historical snapshots of the Post’s story undermined the…
- 'Russian meddling doubters should wait to see report, says Brennan' (on video) - PBS, 4 January, 2017
- (Detailed report to be provided to the US President who is to decide what and how to share...)
- U.S. obtained evidence after election that Russia leaked emails: officials -Arshad Mohammed and Jonathan Landay , Reuters, January 5, 2017
- U.S. intelligence agencies obtained what they considered to be conclusive evidence after the November election that Russia provided hacked material from the Democratic National Committee to WikiLeaks through a third party, three U.S. officials said on Wednesday.
- Foreign Cyber Threats to the United States - US Senate Committee hearing, January 5, 2017
- (In response to Sen. McCain question: 'we stand by our previous assessment' from October)
- @realDonaldTrump, January 5, 2017
- The Democratic National Committee would not allow the FBI to study or see its computer info after it was supposedly hacked by Russia......So how and why are they so sure about hacking if they never even requested an examination of the computer servers? What is going on?
- Background to “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections”: The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution, dni.gov, 6 January 2017
- TOP-SECRET NSA REPORT DETAILS RUSSIAN HACKING EFFORT DAYS BEFORE 2016 ELECTION - The Intercept, June 5 2017
- In response to a question 'does he have any doubt', ex-FBI director James Comey (a lawyer by background) testified that he has 'no doubt' that Russia attempted to influence elections and was behind DNC and DCCC intrusions and subsequent leaks -live stream, vox.com, June 8, 2017
- BURR: Do you have any doubt that Russia attempted to interfere in the 2016 elections?
- COMEY: None.
- BURR: Do you have any doubt that the Russian government was behind the intrusions in the DNC and the DCCC systems, and the subsequent leaks of that information?
- COMEY: No, no doubt.
- BURR: Do you have any doubt that the Russian government was behind the cyber intrusion in the state voter files?
- COMEY: No.
- BURR: Do you have any doubt that officials of the Russian government were fully aware of these activities?
- COMEY: No doubt. (NY Times transcript)(video).
- (later, answering Heinrich)
- The — there should be no fuzz on this whatsoever. The Russians interfered in our election during the 2016 cycle. They did it with purpose. They did it with sophistication. They did it with overwhelming technical efforts. And it was an active-measures campaign driven from the top of that government. There is no fuzz on that.
- It is a high-confidence judgment of the entire intelligence community, and — and the members of this committee have — have seen the intelligence. It’s not a close call. That happened. That’s about as un-fake as you can possibly get, and is very, very serious, which is why it’s so refreshing to see a bipartisan focus on that, because this is about America, not about any particular party.
Recall earlier Robert Parry commentary:
- Repeating an accusation over and over again is not evidence that the accused is guilty, no matter how much “confidence” the accuser asserts about the conclusion.
- the case, as presented (DNI report), is one-sided and lacks any actual proof. Further, the continued use of the word “assesses” – as in the U.S. intelligence community “assesses” that Russia is guilty – suggests that the underlying classified information also may be less than conclusive because, in intelligence-world-speak, “assesses” often means “guesses.”
- The DNI report admits as much, saying, “Judgments are not intended to imply that we have proof that shows something to be a fact. Assessments are based on collected information, which is often incomplete or fragmentary, as well as logic, argumentation, and precedents.”
- Mueller Indicts 13 Russians for Hacking During U.S. Election
- Internet Research Agency, Prigozhin, see also here and here; all claims as per respective sources.
- --Resup (talk) 18:03, 16 February 2018 (UTC)
- 12 b. Co-conspirators arranged for a poster Happy 55 th Birthday Dear Boss in front of the White House (matching Prigozhin birthday)
- Counts: (1) 8. Conspiracy to defraud the US (2) 86. conspiracy of wire and bank fraud (3-8) 96. aggravated identity theft, details in the linked document
--Resup (talk) 18:23, 16 February 2018 (UTC)
- Trump Ordered Aides to Search for Clinton Emails, While the Russians Already Were Looking -The New York Times, April 18, 2019
- DOJ Admits FBI Never Saw Crowdstrike Report on DNC Russian Hacking Claim - Conservative Treehouse, June 15, 2019
- US Govt's Entire Russia-DNC Hacking Narrative Based On Redacted Draft Of Crowdstrike Report - ZeroHedge, June 17, 2019
- Robert Mueller Testimony Transcript: House Congressional Testimony, July 25, 2019
- Mr. Welch: 01:58:05 And you found in your investigation that on July 27th (2016) candidate Trump called up on Russia to hack Hillary Clinton’s emails something that for the first time they did about five hours later, correct?
- Robert Mueller: 01:58:19 That’s correct.
Recall (above) that Crowdstrike report is June 15, 2016. Guccifer 2.0 claim emerged on June 15, 2016, and it contained a document "from Hillary’s PC she worked with as the Secretary of State." He lists some other documents, eg "HRC election plans" and concludes: The main part of the papers, thousands of files and mails, I gave to Wikileaks. They will publish them soon.
- Within approximately five hours of Trump’s statement, GRU officers targeted for the first time Clinton’s personal office. After candidate Trump’s remarks, Unit 26165 created and sent malicious links targeting 15 email accounts at the domain ■■■■■■■■■ including an email account belonging to Clinton aide ■■■■■■■■■ The investigation did not find evidence of earlier GRU attempts to compromise accounts hosted on this domain. It is unclear how the GRU was able to identify these email accounts, which were not public.
This does not sound like a successful or particularly sophisticated attempt
The report itself describes alleged earlier hacking. Allegation evidence is not specified and apparently is coming from the Crowdstrike.
- a. Initial Access
- By no later than April 12, 2016, the GRU had gained access to the DCCC computer network using the credentials stolen from a DCCC employee who had been successfully spearphished the week before. Over the ensuing weeks, the GRU traversed the network, identifying different computers connected to the DCCC network. By stealing network access credentials along the way (including those of IT administrators with unrestricted access to the system), the GRU compromised approximately 29 different computers on the DCCC network.
- Approximately six days after first hacking into the DCCC network, on April 18, 2016, GRU officers gained access to the DNC network via a virtual private network (VPN) connection between the DCCC and DNC networks. Between April 18, 2016 and June 8, 2016, Unit 26165 compromised more than 30 computers on the DNC network, including the DNC mail server and shared file server.
- b. Implantation of Malware on DCCC and DNC Networks
- Unit 26165 implanted on the DCCC and DNC networks two types of customized malware, known as “X-Agent” and “X-Tunnel”; Mimikatz, a credential-harvesting tool; and rar.exe, a tool used in these intrusions to compile and compress materials for exfiltration.
Also recall, US v. George Papadopoulos - Statement of the Offense -justice.gov, October 5, 2017 :
- the professor told defendant PAPADOPOULOS about the "thousands of emails" on or about April 26, 2016, when defendant PAPADOPOULOS had been a foreign policy adviser to the Campaign for over a month.
2020: We have no proof!
- Hidden Over 2 Years: Dem Cyber-Firm's Sworn Testimony It Had No Proof of Russian Hack of DNC - By Aaron Maté, RealClearInvestigations, May 13, 2020
Denials and rebuttals
- Reality Check: 5 Problems with CIA Claim That Russia Hacked DNC/Podesta emails - Ben Swann, CBS, December 16, 2016 (video)
- Spy Film Thriller: Obama’s attributions of the Clinton hacks to Russia’s GRU and FSB don’t add up - Alexander Mercouris, The Duran, December 30, 2016
- Why Crowdstrike’s Russian Hacking Story Fell Apart- Say Hello to Fancy Bear - George Eliason, January 3, 2017
- Emails were leaked, not hacked - William Binney, Ray McGovern, Baltimore Sun, January 5, 2017
- New Cracks in Russia-gate ‘Assessment’, Robert Parry, 23 May 2017
- Yet, as any intelligence expert will tell you, if you “hand-pick” the analysts, you are really hand-picking the conclusion.
- Answer at St. Petersburg forum, June 2017 - long transcript, Eng. video (also: 'horror-fied' translation in a video clip by Wasington Post; 'Putin is ruthlessly trolling the Democrats' - NY Post editorial, etc.).
- Megyn Kelly: ...And what they say in response to the question of “Where is the proof?” is that this type of disinformation campaign is intentionally difficult to find hardcore proof of. It is other factors. And what the experts say is that this couldn’t have been faked – that it’s not one factor, it is a hundred factors that point to Russia. They say it is the forensics, it’s the digital fingerprints, it’s the IP addresses, the malware, the encryption keys, the specific pieces of code – that all of them, all of them, point to Russia and none of them points to anyone other than Russia.
- Vladimir Putin: What fingerprints? Hoof prints, horn prints? Whose fingerprints are these?
- IP addresses can be simply made up. Do you know how many such specialists there are? They will make it look like it was sent from your home address by your children – your three-year old kid, they will organise everything to look like it was your three-year old daughter who carried out the attack. There are such IT specialists in the world today and they can arrange anything and then blame it on whoever ...
- The other team lost. They are reluctant to acknowledge the mistake. They do not want to admit that they did not get it, that they miscalculated. It is easier to say, “We are not to blame, the Russians are to blame, they interfered in our election, but we are good.” It reminds me of anti-Semitism: the Jews are to blame for everything. The halfwit cannot do anything but the Jews are the ones who are to blame.
- (part of longer answer, and returning to the issue several more times)
- Vladimir Putin Tells Megyn Kelly: U.S. Hackers Could Have Framed Russia - NBC trailer, June 2, 2017
- Megyn Kelly One-on-One with Russian President Vladimir Putin - NBC, June 4, 2017 (video length here, 11:02)
- Full interview video, Russ. version so far here (length 20:10)
- Body language study
- NBC edited out Putin's hard truths - here's what you missed , by Inessa Sinchougova, Fort Russ
- US Govt Data Shows Russia Used Outdated Ukrainian PHP Malware - Mark Maunder, Wordfence, December 30, 2016
- The IP addresses that DHS provided may have been used for an attack by a state actor like Russia. But they don’t appear to provide any association with Russia. They are probably used by a wide range of other malicious actors, especially the 15% of IP addresses that are Tor exit nodes.
- The malware sample is old, widely used and appears to be Ukrainian. It has no apparent relationship with Russian intelligence and it would be an indicator of compromise for any website.
- Is “Grizzly Steppe” Really a Russian Operation? - Power Line, December 31, 2016
- Grizzly Misstep: Security Experts Call Russia Hacking Report “Poorly Done,” “Fatally Flawed” - David Z. Morris, Fortune, December 31, 2016
- New Russian Hacks? No, Old Ukrainian Malware Found. - Moon of Alabama, December 31, 2016
- U.S. Intelligence Got the Wrong Cyber Bear - Leonid Bershidsky, Bloomberg, January 2, 2017
- Did a Ukrainian University Student Create Grizzly Steppe? - Petri Krohn, SAFKA, January 3, 2017
- In Ukraine, a Malware Expert Who Could Blow the Whistle on Russian Hacking - NY Times, August 16, 2017
- But while Profexer’s online persona vanished, a flesh-and-blood person has emerged: a fearful man who the Ukrainian police said turned himself in early this year, and has now become a witness for the F.B.I. “I don’t know what will happen,” he wrote in one of his last messages posted on a restricted-access website before going to the police.
- СМИ: хакера с Украины допросили по делу о взломе серверов демократов в США (Media: hacker from Ukraine interrogated in case of hacking of Democrat servers in USA) - RIA, August 16, 2017
Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity
- More Holes in Russia-gate Narrative-William Binney and Ray McGovern, Consortium News, September 20, 2017
- Still Waiting for Evidence of a Russian Hack] - Ray McGovern, Consortium News, June 7, 2018
- Did Sen. Warner and Comey ‘Collude’ on Russia-gate? - Ray McGovern, Consortium News, June 27, 2018
- VIPS: Mueller’s Forensics-Free Findings - Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity via Consortium News, March 13, 2019
- Bill Binney (former NSA) on the Arrest of Julian Assange - LaRouchePAC Videos, youtube, April 11, 2019
- Binney: 'GRU agents going here and there, and so on, inside the DNC', alleged in the indictment (noted: and repeated in the Mueller report) 'can't be NSA data, because NSA data is classified'; if anything is published it has to be redacted. Binney assumes this is Crowdstrike or another third party data.
- Noted: it remains unclear where essentially same cross-referenced allegations in the Mueller report are coming from. Mueller report is released in the redacted, methods-wise, form.
- Noted: (alleged, by unreliable 'The Insider', but deemed reliable enough for Skipals) leaked NSA report on Russian hacking, August to November, 2016 appears less striking/flashy than the material in the indictment and Mueller report.
- 'We Have Absolute Proof' DNC Leaks Were Not Hacked, NSA Whistleblower Says - Sputnik, August 12, 2020
No, I did it!
- Moved to Guccifer 2.0
- Craig Murray Says He Knows Who Leaked The DNC and Podesta Emails - Randy Credico, October 25, 2016 (full inteview)
- EXCLUSIVE: Source of DNC, Podesta Leaks 'Comes From Within Washington' - Novermber 2, 2016
- The CIA’s Absence of Conviction 329 - Craig Murray, December 11, 2016
- Craig Murray Radio Interview, Scott Horton Show, December 13, 2016
- Craig Murray claims to have 'rather more direct information' on the source, not just what Assange told him, 'which relates to the visit' he (Craig Murray) 'paid to Washington in September of this year' (2016). His claim is not really clarified past that above statement. He also stresses that DNC and Podesta cases are different but characterize both as 'leaks, not hacks'.
- WikiLeaks operative claims Russia did NOT provide Hillary Clinton emails - Daily Mail. December 14, 2016
- Exit Obama in a Cloud of Disillusion, Delusion and Deceit - Craig Murray, December 30, 2016
- Craig Murray at the Ecuadorian Embassy in London - Jason Goodman, June 22, 2017
- Main article: Seth Rich
- Come On, We All Know It Was Seth Rich - Caitlin Johnstone, December 18, 2016
- Family of slain DNC staffer Seth Rich blasts detective over report of WikiLeaks link - Malia Zimmerman, Fox News, May 16, 2017
- The federal investigator, who requested anonymity, said 44,053 emails and 17,761 attachments between Democratic National Committee leaders, spanning from January 2015 through late May 2016, were transferred from Rich to MacFadyen before May 21.
- Murdered DNC staffer Seth Rich had sent 44,000 internal emails to WikiLeaks: Report - Kyle Feldscher, Washington Examiner, May 16, 2017
No public comment
- Assange meets U.S. congressman, vows to prove Russia did not leak him documents - The Hill, August 16, 2017
- Congressman Dana Rohrabacher recounted his conversation with Assange to The Hill.Our three-hour meeting covered a wide array of issues, including the WikiLeaks exposure of the DNC emails during last year's presidential election,” Rohrabacher said, “Julian emphatically stated that the Russians were not involved in the hacking or disclosure of those emails. Pressed for more detail on the source of the documents, Rohrabacher said he had information to share privately with President Donald Trump
- Mueller Thinks Roger Stone Was Tipped Off About WikiLeaks Email Dump - Court Doc - Sputnik, November 29, 2018
- Ex-Trump Adviser Stone Arrested in Mueller Probe - Special Counsel's Office - Sputnik, January 25, 2019
- Roger Stone indicted on charges brought by special counsel - CNN, January 25, 2019
A theory (number ****) by conspiracy journalist Georg Webb (starts around 9:30 here). He claims that McAfee/Networks Associates in the early days bought a company of Russian hackers, kept 12 of them to keep writing viruses, while in another office the anti-viruses were produced (veracity of this is entirely on George Webb). With Alperovich coming from McAffe, he thinks it might go along similar lines with Crowdstrike. (No real evidence for that, of course, but a curious thought).
Now, from John McAfee interview:
- “When the FBI or when any other agency says the Russians did it or the Chinese did something or the Iranians did something – that's a fallacy,”
- “Any hacker capable of breaking into something is extraordinarily capable of hiding their tracks. If I were the Chinese and I wanted to make it look like the Russians did it I would use Russian language within the code.
- “This is what the FBI and other agencies want us to believe so that they can manipulate our opinions, but I can promise you – if it looks like the Russians did it, then I can guarantee you it was not the Russians.”
- Comey Testifying On The Russia Hacks, January 10, 2017. FBI Director James Comey testifies before the 115th Congress, saying despite multiple requests from different levels of the FBI, that the FBI did not have direct acces to the DNC servers nor Podesto's personal electronics. They relied on "highly respected" third party affliates to do their investigation.
- Mirror: FBI requested DNC servers multiple times, and denied - James Comey, video published June 1, 2017. FBI access was denied, and eventually it was agreed that a 'highly respected private company' got access and shared 'what they saw'.
- In reply to Roger Stone filing (Politico, 20 June, 2019; PDF file), the US government says that it (independently) "gathered evidence" of hacking, without saying what that evidence is.
- 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak - Wikipedia
- Russia-Wiretapping hypotheses only timeline - RulerOfSlides
- Fancy Frauds, Bogus Bears & Malware Mimicry?!Fancy Frauds, Bogus Bears & Malware Mimicry?! - Adam Carter, Disobedient Media, December 26, 2017
- The DNC Leaks and Crossfire Hurricane: A Timeline - Leo Goldstein, American Thinker, August 8, 2018
- Who Done It? Yaacov Apelbaum, January 3, 2019
- Meet Alice! The DNC Hacker That Clears Julian Assange - George Eliason, CD Media, October 7, 2020
- https://www.justice.gov/file/1080281/download , July 13, 2018
- Donald Trump.
- Trump has ”very low expectations" for Putin meeting -CBS (video), published Jul 15, 2018
- Our relationship with Russia has NEVER been worse thanks to many years of U.S. foolishness and stupidity and now, the Rigged Witch Hunt! -twitter, 1,2, July 15, 2018
- John Bolton. 'I find it hard to believe' Putin didn’t know about Russian interference in U.S. election: White House national security adviser -ABC news, Jul 15, 2018
- Rudy Giuliani 1, 2.
- (Private server): March, 2016 WikiLeaks launched a searchable archive of emails sent to/from Sec. Clinton private email server
- (Russians): Allegedly, on April 22, 2016 'gigabytes of data' compressed, and on April 26, 2016 transferred to moved the compressed DNC data using X-Tunnel to a GRU-leased computer located in Illinois (Indictment, 28), by indicted Russians
- (Allegedly hack noticed): 'DNC leaders were tipped to the hack in late April (2016). Chief executive Amy Dacey got a call from her operations chief saying that their information technology team had noticed some unusual network activity. Within 24 hours, CrowdStrike had installed software on the DNC’s computers so that it could analyze data '. (WaPo)
- More leaks threatened by Wikileaks , June 12, 2016:
- (Alleged hack reported): WaPo, June 14, 2016; Crowdstrike, June 16, 2016
Military Units from the indictment:
- 'Federal State Military Unit 26165' listing, map
- 'Federal State Military Unit 74455', listing not found, the unit and address, military camp No. 48/1, Moscow, Svoboda street (ulitsa Svobody), 21/2, mentioned in this unrelated court document, map.
- VIKTOR BORISOVICH NETYKSHO (Нетыкшо Виктор Борисович) (dissertation). Some info given by svoboda.org (below)
- В чем обвиняет офицеров российского разведуправления минюст США: факты -Novaya Gazeta, 18 July, 2018
- По следам офицеров ГРУ. Новые детали в "деле русских хакеров" -svoboda.org, 17 July, 2018
Some units and people appear to be real and potentially capable. Mueller still has to show that they were involved. What he provides is some @mail.com email address said to be used. It is not really clear (to me) how this establishes involvement of two military units and 12 people, said to be officers. --Resup (talk) 09:55, 22 July 2018 (UTC)
- https://blog.trendmicro.com/trendlabs-security-intelligence/pawn-storm-update-ios-espionage-app-found/ , February 4, 2015
- We found two malicious iOS applications in Operation Pawn Storm. One is called XAgent (detected as IOS_XAGENT.A) and the other one uses the name of a legitimate iOS game, MadCap (detected as IOS_ XAGENT.B). After analysis, we concluded that both are applications related to SEDNIT.
- Analysis of XAgent ...Installing the malware into an iOS 8 device yields different results. The icon is not hidden and it also cannot restart automatically. This suggests that the malware was designed prior to the release of iOS 8 last September 2014.
- From late 2014 and through 2016, FANCY BEAR X-Agent implant was covertly distributed on Ukrainian military forums within a legitimate Android application developed by Ukrainian artillery officer Yaroslav Sherstuk.
- The original application enabled artillery forces to more rapidly process targeting data for the Soviet-era D-30 Howitzer employed by Ukrainian artillery forces reducing targeting time from minutes to under 15 seconds. According to Sherstuk’s interviews with the press, over 9000 artillery personnel have been using the application in Ukrainian military.
- Open source reporting indicates that Ukrainian artillery forces have lost over 50% of their weapons in the 2 years of conflict and over 80% of D-30 howitzers, the highest percentage of loss of any other artillery pieces in Ukraine’s arsenal.
- Defense ministry denies reports of alleged artillery losses because of Russian hackers' break into software -Interfax.ua, 06.01.2017
- "The information of the Command of Missile Troops and Artillery of the Ukrainian Ground Forces is that losses in artillery weapons during the Anti-Terrorist operation were way below those reported [by the media, which claimed 80% of D-30 howitzers were lost] and have nothing to do with the stated cause.
- X-Tunnel is capable of doing many other things, but according to Invincea, its characteristics suggest that its main goal is data exfiltration. The malware's impressive capabilities meant that the damage it caused was huge. What is interesting, however, is that it didn't employ some state-of-the-art technology. Instead, it used a protocol that is now more than ten years old.
- Researchers at Invincia reckon that the X-Tunnel malware is a modified version of Xtunnel PortMap – an open-source project that used the aforementioned protocol and was developed by a Chinese company called Xten.
3-point answer of Putin to Fox, Russia could not affect election results, hacked materials were genuine (but all the attention is away from it), the guilt has to be decided in courts (offering questioning and investigation in Russia procedure, also stated in the summit press conference). I thought before the summit the Russian answer will be referring it to courts (but no cosmic good to make this point early here). With Putin's law enforcement/services background, references to law/legal process appear natural/genuine (and different from investigative approach I favor, or other approaches). An argument can be made how courts are not ideal, and more points how it is even more so in Russia. But the alternative when claims are never investigated competitively (even if imperfectly) and used forever in partisan propaganda or 'hybrid wars' is not exactly a bright alternative either. --00:51, 17 July 2018 (UTC)